Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh, dan Fungsi Conjunction

Conjunction, atau kata sambung dalam bahasa Indonesia, merupakan bagian dari parts of speech yang sangat penting. Karena conjuction menjadi penghubung unit-unit yang setara, seperti kata dengan kata, frasa dengan frasa, klausa dengan klausa, dan bahkan kalimat dengan kalimat. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, jenis, contoh, dan fungsi conjunction.

Pengertian Conjunction

Conjunction atau kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan unit-unit bahasa yang setara (kata dengan kata, frasa dengan frasa, klausa dengan klausa, kalimat dengan kalimat, dan seterusnya). Pemakaian conjunction dapat dicontohkan dengan kalimat di bawah ini.

You and I are on the same boat.
And
menghubungkan kata (you) dengan kata (I) atau subjek dengan subjek.
Is that your father or your uncle?
Or
menghubungkan frasa (your father) dan frase (your uncle) atau subjective complement dan subjective complement.
We went home after the rain stopped.
After
menghubungkan klausa (we went home) dan klause (the rain stopped) atau main clause dan sub cluase.
He is smart but he is arrogant.
But
menghubungkan kalimat (he is smart) dan kalimat (he is arrogant).

Dari kalimat di atas dapat dilihat bahwa conjunction dapat menghubungkan berbagai unit bahasa yang setara.


Jenis dan Contoh Conjunction

Berikut jenis dan contoh conjunction dalam bahasa Inggris.

A. Compound Conjuctions

Compound conjuction dalah kata sambung yang menghubungkan hal-hal yang setara, misalnya subject dengan subject, verb dengan verb, object dengan object, adverb dengan adverb, adjective dengan adjective, dsb.
Compound conjuction dibagi menjadi 2, antara lain:

  1. Coordinate Conjuction

    Anggota:

    F – A – N – B – O – Y – S

    Keterangan:

    For (karena)
    And (dan)
    Nor (tidak juga)
    But (tetapi)
    Or (atau)
    Yet (tetapi)
    So (sehingga)
    She was absent yesterday, for she was sick.
    Mr. Wilson invited me
    and him.
    He can not see
    nor hear.
    The shoes are old
    but comfortable.
    Is Sam sleeping
    or going somewhere?
    She didn’t study,
    yet she passed the exam.
    He was tired,
    so he went to bed.

    Catatan:
    a) FANBOYS selalu terletak di tengah kalimat atau di antara dua kalimat. Tidak dibenarkan meletakkan mereka di awal kalimat. Contoh:

    CORRECT     : The child hid behind his mother’s skirt, for he was afraid of the dog.
    INCORRECT : For he was afraid of the dog, the child hid behind his mother’s skirt.

    Namun conjuction lain bisa digunakan untuk menggantikannya ketika di awal kalimat. Contoh:

    Because he was afraid of the dog, the child hid behind his mother’s skirt.

    b) Conjuction for, yet, dan so selalu menghubungkan kalimat dan koma selalu mengawali mereka.
    c) And, ketika menghubungkan dua kalimat, memiliki tanda baca sebagai berikut:

    It was raining hard, and there was a strong wind.
    Umumnya, conjunction diawali dengan sebuah koma ketika menghubungkan dua kalimat.
    It was raining hard and there was a strong wind.
    Jika kalimat yang dihubungkan merupakan kalimat-kalimat pendek, koma dapat dihilangkan.
    It was raining hard. And there was a strong wind.
    Pada penulisan yang sifatnya informal, and dapat memulai sebuah kalimat baru.
  2. Correlative Conjuction

    Correlative conjuction terdiri dari konjungsi-konjungsi yang berpasangan.
    Anggota:

    Both… and…
    Not only… but also…
    Either… or…
    Neither… nor…

    Pola:

    Both SUBJECT and SUBJECT plural verb (are, were, have, do, take, etc)
    Not only
    Either
    Neither
    SUBJECT but also
    or
    nor
    SUBJECT plural/ singular verb (is, was, has, does, takes, etc)*

    * Plural dan singular-nya ditentukan dari subjek yang belakang.

    Contoh:

    Both the driver and the passager were injured in the accident.
    Not only she but also I am studying chemistry.
    Not only I but also she is studying chemistry.
    Either Mr. Anderson or Ms. Wiggins is going to teach our class today.
    Neither my sister nor my parents have been here.
    Neither my parents nor my sister has been here.

B. Complex Conjuctions

Complex conjunction adalah kata sambung yang menghubungkan antara main clause (induk kalimat) dan subordinate clause (anak kalimat). Bertemunya dua jenis klausa ini akan membentuk kalimat. Adapun anggota complex conjunction meliputi konjungsi selain compound conjuction, seperti: when, while, which, what, when, where, that, after, before, till, until, because, although, if, dsb. Pola:

Main Cl: S + V + (O) + (A)
Sub Cl: Conj + S + V + (O) + (A)
Sentence: Main Cl + Sub Cl atau Sub Cl + Main Cl

Contoh:

He was talking on the phone when I arrived.
We stayed there until we finished our work.
After she graduates, she will get a job.
I had left before he came.
He went to bed because he was sleepy.

Fungsi Conjunction

Secara garis besar, fungsi conjunction dalam bahasa Inggris adalah sebagai:

  1. Penambahan (cumulative)

    She is both a teacher and a writer.
  2. Pilihan (alternative)

    You can take either the white candy or the red one.
  3. Pertentangan (adversative)

    Mrs Nia is humble, but her sister isn’t.
  4. Kesimpulan (conclusion)

    I am ready, so let’s go now.
  5. Keterangan tambahan (apposition)

    They loved each other until they passed away together.
  6. Hubungan sebab akibat (cause and effect)

    He didn’t attend the lecture because he had to take her mother to the hospital.
  7. Pengaruh atau akibat (impact)

    This soup is so hot that I cannot eat it.
  8. Maksud dan tujuan (purpose)

    You have to drink much in order that you keep hydrated.
  9. Syarat (condition)

    You will get it done if you focus on finishing it.
  10. Pernyataan mengalah (concession)

    He worked all day even though he was sick.
  11. Perbandingan (comparison)

    My house is larger than yours.
  12. Cara (manner)

    He got the ticket as he came earlier.
  13. Waktu (time)

    You can use my PC while I am outside.

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