DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

A. DIRECT SPEECH

Direct speech adalah kalimat yang dikutip secara langsung dari pembicaranya, tanpa mengubah, menambah, ataupun mengurangi isi pesan. Dalam penulisan, kalimat ini ditandai dengan tanda kutip (“ ….”). Contoh:

He said, “I will leave for Bandung tonight.”
My mom asked, “Where did you put the key?”
The teacher told the kids, “Don’t make much noise!”

B. INDIRECT SPEECH

Indirect atau reported speech adalah kalimat pembicara yang dinyatakan kembali oleh pembicara lain dengan cara mengubah sudut pandangnya, yakni dengan mengubah pronounnya. Selain itu, biasanya, kalimat ini ditulis dengan membubuhkan konjungsi, sesuai dengan bentuk kalimatnya. Kaitannya dengan hal ini, kalimat dibedakan tiga:

Kalimat

Konjungsi

Pernyataan That*
Pertanyaan:
a. Yes/no question If/whether (apakah)
b. WH question Kata tanya yang dipakai (who, what, why, how, …)
Perintah:
a. Perintah To V1
b. Larangan Not to V1

* That bersifat opsional dalam indirect speech. Boleh ditulis, boleh tidak.

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

He said, “I will leave for Bandung tonight.” He said (that) he would leave for Bandung that night.
My mom asked, “Where did you put the key?” My mom asked where I had put the key.
The teacher told the kids, “Don’t make much noise!” The teacher told the kids not to make much noise.

C. PERUBAHAN PRONOUNS

Perubahan pronoun terjadi saat direct speech berubah menjadi indirect speech. Seperti dijelaskan sebelumnya, hal ini dikarenakan berubahnya sudut pandang. Dan berikut adalah perubahan pronoun yang muncul dalam indirect speech.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

I, me, my, myself, mine Menyesuaikan subjek main clause*
You, you, your, yourself/ves, yours Menyesuaikan objek main clause
Pronoun lain Menyesuaikan konteks kalimat

* Main clause adalah bagian yang tidak bertanda kutip dalam direct speech (he said, my mom asked, the teacher told the kids).

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Mr Gibson tells me, “I know your father very well.” Mr Gibson tells me he knows my father very well.
They say, “We are learning speaking.” They say they are learning speaking.
He has told us, “Your books are on the desk.” He has told us that our books are on the desk.

D. PERUBAHAN TENSES

Di samping pronoun, perubahan tenses dimungkinkan pula untuk terjadi dalam indirect speech, khususnya jika main clause diberikan dalam bentuk simple past. Adapun perubahan tenses-nya berlaku seperti di bawah ini.

PRESENT

PAST

PERFECT

Simple present Simple past Past perfect
Present continuous Past continuous Past perfect continuous
Present perfect Past perfect
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous

PRESENT FUTURE

PAST FUTURE

PAST FUTURE PERFECT

Simple future Past future Past future perfect
Future continuous Past future continuous Past future perfect cont
Future perfect Past future perfect
Future perfect continuous Past future perfect cont

PRESENT MODAL

PAST MODAL

Can Could
Will Would
Shall Should
May Might
Must, has/have to Had to

* Perubahan tenses mengikuti alur: present > past > past perfect

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

I said, “I don’t know.” I said that I didn’t know.
He asked me, “Were you so busy?” He asked me if I had been busy.
The police told us, “You can leave.” The police told us that we could leave.”

E. PERUBAHAN ADVERBS

Tak hanya tenses, adverbs juga dapat mengalami perubahan ketika main clause dalam bentuk simple past. Dan perubahannya yaitu:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Now Then
Today That day
Tomorrow The following/next day
Next month The following month
Next year The following year
Yesterday The day before
Last night The night before
Last week The week before
Two days ago Two days before
Five months ago Five months before
This That
These Those
Here There

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

David said, “I get to go now.” David said that he got to go then.
He told me, “We will meet tonight.” He told me we would meet that night.
The man reminded me, “be here at two.” The man reminded me to be there at two.