Pengertian, Rumus, dan Contoh Direct and Indirect Speech

Tenses dalam bahasa Inggris mempunyai banyak kegunaan sebagai pengembangannya. Salah satunya adalah direct and indirect speech. Direct and indirect speech biasa dipakai dalam percakapan melalui ujaran langsung dan tak langsung. Dalam hal ini, direct speech menggambarkan ujaran langsung, sementara indirect speech untuk ujaran tidak langsung atau mengutip perkataan orang lain. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, rumus, dan contoh direct and indirect speech dalam bahasa Inggris.

Pengertian Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct speech, atau dikenal juga dengan quoted speech (ucapan langsung), adalah kalimat atau ujaran yang dikutip secara langsung dari pembicaranya, tanpa mengubah, menambah, ataupun mengurangi isi pesan. Dalam penulisannya, kalimat ini ditandai dengan quotation mark atau tanda kutip (“ ….”). Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.

He said, “I will leave for Bandung tonight.”
My mom asked, “Where did you put the key?”
The teacher told the kids, “Don’t make much noise!”

Indirect speech, atau dikenal juga dengan reported speech (ucapan tak langsung), adalah kalimat atau ujaran yang dinyatakan atau dilaporkan kembali oleh pembicara lain dengan cara mengubah sudut pandangnya. Kalimat ini ditulis tidak dengan membubuhkan tanpa kutip, tapi dengan menyematkan konjungsi, sesuai dengan bentuk kalimatnya. Dalam hal ini, bentuk kalimat dibedakan tiga:

Dalam hal ini, bentuk kalimat dibedakan tiga:

Kalimat Konjungsi
1) Pernyataan that*
2) Pertanyaan:
a. Yes/no question if/whether (apakah)
b. WH question who, whom, what, why, when, where, how, … (mengikuti kata tanya digunakan)
3) Perintah:
a. Perintah to V1
b. Larangan not to V1

* That bersifat opsional dalam indirect speech. Boleh ditulis, boleh tidak.

Berikut perbandingan direct speech dan indirect speech.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

He said, “I will leave for Bandung tonight.” He said (that) he would leave for Bandung that night.
My mom asked, “Where did you put the key?” My mom asked where I had put the key.
The teacher told the kids, “Don’t make much noise!” The teacher told the kids not to make much noise.

Dari contoh di atas dapat dilihat bahwa direct speech ditandai dengan tanda kutip, sedangkan indirect speech dengan konjungsi yang disesuaikan dengan bentuk kalimat atau ujarannya.


Rumus dan Contoh Direct and Indirect Speech

Rumus indirect speech bergantung pada pronoun dan verb pada main clause. Secara umum, terdapat tiga jenis perubahan pada indirect speech, yaitu pronouns, tenses, dan adverbs. Berikut rumus dan contoh direct and indirect speech.

A. Perubahan Pronouns

Perubahan pronoun terjadi saat direct speech berubah menjadi indirect speech. Seperti dijelaskan sebelumnya, hal ini dikarenakan berubahnya sudut pandang. Dan berikut adalah perubahan pronoun yang muncul dalam indirect speech.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

I, me, my, myself, mine Menyesuaikan subjek main clause*
You, you, your, yourself/ves, yours Menyesuaikan objek main clause
Pronoun lain Menyesuaikan konteks kalimat

* Main clause adalah bagian yang tidak bertanda kutip dalam direct speech (pada contoh sebelumnya: he said, my mom asked, the teacher told the kids).

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Mr Gibson tells me, “I know your father very well.” Mr Gibson tells me he knows my father very well.
They say, “We are learning speaking.” They say they are learning speaking.
He has told us, “Your books are on the desk.” He has told us that our books are on the desk.

B. Perubahan Tenses

Di samping pronoun, perubahan tenses dapat terjadi dalam indirect speech, khususnya jika main clause ber-tense simple past. Adapun perubahan tenses-nya berlaku seperti di bawah ini.

PRESENT

PAST

PERFECT

Simple present Simple past Past perfect
Present continuous Past continuous Past perfect continuous
Present perfect Past perfect
Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous

PRESENT FUTURE

PAST FUTURE

PAST FUTURE PERFECT

Simple future Past future Past future perfect
Future continuous Past future continuous Past future perfect cont
Future perfect Past future perfect
Future perfect continuous Past future perfect cont

PRESENT MODAL

PAST MODAL

Can Could
Will Would
Shall Should
May Might
Must, has/have to Had to

* Perubahan tenses mengikuti alur: present > past > past perfect

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

I said, “I don’t know.” I said that I didn’t know.
He asked me, “Were you so busy?” He asked me if I had been busy.
The police told us, “You can leave.” The police told us that we could leave.”

C. Perubahan Adverbs

Tak hanya tenses, adverbs juga dapat mengalami perubahan ketika main clause dalam bentuk simple past. Di bawah ini adalah daftar perubahan adverbs dalam indirect speech.

Direct speech

Indirect speech

Now Then
Today That day
Tomorrow The following/next day
Next month The following month
Next year The following year
Yesterday The day before
Last night The night before
Last week The week before
Two days ago Two days before
Five months ago Five months before
This That
These Those
Here There

Contoh:

Direct speech

Indirect speech

David said, “I get to go now.” David said that he got to go then.
He told me, “We will meet tonight.” He told me we would meet that night.
The man reminded me, “be here at two.” The man reminded me to be there at two.

Program Sertifikat Grammar

Tertarik untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pemahaman Anda terhadap grammar setelah mempelajarinya di website ini? Anda bisa mengambil tes grammar bersertifikat di sini:

Program Sertifikat Grammar


Daftar Materi di Supplementary Materials

  1. PASSIVE VOICE
  2. CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
  3. QUESTION TAGS
  4. PARALLEL STRUCTURES
  5. COMPARISON DEGREES
  6. DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH

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