Pengertian, Rumus, dan Contoh Parallel Structures

Tenses dalam bahasa Inggris mempunyai banyak kegunaan sebagai pengembangannya. Salah satunya adalah parallel structures. Parallel structures biasa dipakai untuk menghubungkan struktur atau konstruksi gramatikal yang sama. Di samping itu, konstruksi terus haruslah mempunyai fungsi yang sama dalam kalimat. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, rumus, dan contoh parallel structures dalam bahasa Inggris.

Pengertian Parallel Structures

Parallel structures, atau dikenal juga dengan parallelism, adalah struktur gramatikal yang menghubungkan elemen-elemen yang setara, baik dari sisi bentuk maupun dari sisi fungsi. Dari sisi bentuk, elemen-elemen tersebut dapat berupa word, phrase, atau clause, sedangkan ditinjau di sisi fungsinya, mereka menempati posisi subjek, verb, pelengkap, objek, atau adverb. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.

He likes swimming, hiking, and climbing menghubungkan kata (gerund) dengan fungsi sebagai objek
Students were asked to do their assignments quickly, accurately, and thoroughly. menghubungkan kata (adverb) dengan fungsi sebagai adverb
Their work is not only very relevant but also immensely detailed. menghubungkan frasa (adjective phrase) dengan fungsi pelengkap

Dari contoh di atas dapat dilihat bahwa parallel structures menghubungkan elemen-elemen yang memiliki bentuk dan fungsi yang sama.


Rumus dan Contoh Parallel Structures

Rumus parallel structures bergantung pada jenis conjunction yang digunakannya. Secara umum, conjunction yang dipakai dalam parallel structures ada dua, yaitu coordinate conjunction dan correlative conjunction. Pada pembahasan ini, fokus akan diberikan lebih banyak pada yang kedua. Berikut rumus dan contoh parallel structures.

A. Coordinate Conjunction

Pada coordinate conjunction, and dan or adalah konjungsi yang paling sering dipakai. Dalam penyebutan lebih dari dua elemen, koma umumnya diberikan untuk memisahkan setiap elemen.

  1. Words and Phrases

    Parallel : My nephew likes gardening, walking, and cycling.
    My nephew likes to garden, to walk, and to cycle.
    My nephew likes to garden, walk, and cycle.
    Not parallel : My nephew likes gardening, walk, and do cycling.
    Parallel : The report should be written quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
    The report should be written in quick, accurate, and thorough manners.
    Not parallel : The report should be written quickly, accurately, and in a thorough manner.
    Parallel : The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and lacked motivation.
    Not parallel : The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, completed his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.
  2. Clauses

    Parallel : The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game.

    The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, not eat too much, and do some warm-up exercises before the game.

    Not parallel : The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game.
     
    Parallel : Mr. Thomas expected that he would present his ideas at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that his partners would agree with him.
    Not parallel : Mr. Thomas expected that he would present his ideas at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that he would be agreed by his partners.
     
    Parallel : The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that he would have time to show his slide presentation, and that prospective buyers would ask him questions.
    Not parallel : The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that he would have time to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers.

B. Correlative Conjunction

Correlative conjunction memiliki empat pasangan konjungsi yang semuanya mengharuskan struktur paralel. Konjungsi ini dapat ditempatkan di manapun dalam kalimat, entah itu subjek, verb, pelengkap, objek, atau adverb. Keempat konjungsi tersebut adalah both…and…, not only…but also…, either…or…, dan neither…nor… .

  1. Subjek

    Both SUBJECT and SUBJECT VERB plural
    Not only SUBJECT but also SUBJECT VERB plural/ singular*
    Either or
    Neither nor**

    Keterangan:
    * Plural–singularnya ditentukan dari subjek yang belakang.
    ** Neither…nor… digunakan untuk kalimat negatif.

    Contoh:

    Sentences : John is in the classroom.
    Jack is in the classroom.
    Parallelism : Both John and ack are in the classroom.
    Not only John but also Jack is in the classroom.
    Either John or Jack is in the classroom.
     
    Sentences : John is not in the classroom.
    Jack is not in the classroom.
    Parallelism : Neither John nor Jack is in the classroom.

    John is in the classroom.
    Jack is in the classroom.
    Both John and ack are in the classroom.
    Not only John but also Jack is in the classroom.
    Either John or Jack is in the classroom.

    John is not in the classroom.
    Jack is not in the classroom.
    Neither John nor Jack is in the classroom.

SUBJECT Both VERB and VERB
Not only but also
Either or
Neither nor

Contoh:

  1. Robert is reading a novel.
    Robert is listening to music.
    Robert is both reading a novel and listening to music.
    Robert is not only reading a novel but also listening to music.
    Robert is either reading a novel or listening to music.
  2. Robert is not reading a novel.
    Robert is not listening to music.
    Robert is neither reading a novel nor listening to music.
  • Pelengkap
SUBJECT VERB Both COMPLEMENT and COMPLEMENT
Not only but also
Either or
Neither nor

Contoh:

  1. She is beautiful.
    She is intelligent.
    She is both beautiful and intelligent.
    She is not only beautiful but also intelligent.
    She is either beautiful or intelligent.
  2. She is not beautiful.
    She is not intelligent.
    She is neither beautiful nor intelligent.
  •  Objek
SUBJECT + VERB Both OBJECT and OBJECT
Not only but also
Either or
Neither nor

Contoh:

  1. The student speaks Spanish.
    The student speaks English.
    The student speaks both Spanish and English.
    The student speaks not only Spanish but also English.
    The student speaks either Spanish or English.
  2. The student doesn’t speak Spanish.
    The student doesn’t speak English.
    The student speaks neither Spanish nor English.
  • Adverb
SUBJECT + VERB + (OBJECT) Both ADVERB and ADVERB
Not only but also
Either or
Neither nor

Contoh:

  1. He worked quickly.
    He works accurately.
    He worked both quickly and accurately.
    He worked not only quickly but also accurately.
    He worked either quickly or accurately.
  2. He didn’t work quickly.
    He didn’t work accurately.
    He worked neither quickly nor accurately.

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