PASSIVE VOICE

A. POLA

PRESENT  
Simple present S + am, is, are + V3
Present continuous S + am, is, are + being + V3
Present perfect S + has, have + been + V3
Present perfect continuous S + has, have + been + V3
PAST  
Simple past S + was, were + V3
Past continuous S + was, were + being + V3
Past perfect S + had + been + V3
Past perfect continuous S + had + been + V3
PRESENT FUTURE             
Simple future S + will + be + V3
Future continuous S + will + be + V3
Future perfect S + will + have + been + V3
Future perfect continuous S + will + have + been + V3
PAST FUTURE  
Past future S + would + be + V3
Past future continuous S + would + be + V3
Past future perfect S + would + have + been + V3
Past future perfect continuous S + would + have + been + V3

 

B. KETENTUAN

  1. Being hanya terdapat pada tenses present continuous dan past continuous. Tenses continuous yang lain tidak menggunakan being dalam polanya.
  2. Kalimat yang dapat dipasifkan hanyalah kalimat yang memiliki objek (transitif).
    Contoh:
    He left his family: bisa dipasifkan karena berobjek (his family)
    He left this morning: tidak bisa dipasifkan karena tidak berobjek (this morning adalah adverb)
  3. Objek di kalimat aktif (active voice) menjadi subjek di kalimat pasif (passive voice).
    Contoh:
    AV: Robert is washing the car in the backyard.
    PV: The car is being washed by Robert in the backyard.
  4. Subjek kalimat pasif tersebut menentukan jenis verb yang digunakan, apakah tunggal atau jamak.
    Contoh:
    AV: Robert is washing the cars in the backyard.
    PV: The cars are being washed by Robert in the backyard.
  5. By + agent (pelaku) tidak selalu muncul dalam passive voice, utamanya jika pelaku tidak jelas, tidak penting (untuk disebutkan), atau telah dikenal luas.
    Contoh:
    AV: Someone took my book yesterday.
    PV: My book was taken (by someone: dihilangkan) yesterday.

 

C. CONTOH

  1. Jack has mailed the letters. (present perfect)
    The letters have been mailed by Jack.
  2. Mr Brown will plan the meeting. (simple future)
    The meeting will be planned by Mr Brown.
  3. That company hires many programmers. (simple present)
    Many programmers are hired by the company.
  4. The students were singing a traditional song. (past continuous)
    A traditional song was being sung by the students.
  5. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago. (simple past)
    –   (tidak bisa, karena tidak berobjek)

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