Pengertian, Rumus, dan Contoh Passive Voice

Tenses dalam bahasa Inggris mempunyai banyak kegunaan sebagai pengembangannya. Salah satunya adalah passive voice. Passive voice biasa dipakai untuk memberikan variasi struktur kalimat dalam tulisan. Dalam hal ini, objek diubah fungsinya menjadi subjek, dengan tujuan memberikan penekanan atau lainnya. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, rumus, dan contoh passive voice dalam bahasa Inggris.

Pengertian Passive Voice

Passive voice, atau dikenal juga dengan kalimat pasif dalam bahasa Indonesia, adalah suatu konstruksi kalimat di mana subjek tidak melakukan aksi, melainkan menerimanya. Subjek ini sebetulnya adalah objek dari active voice (kalimat aktif), sehingga keduanya bisa dikatakan berkebalikan. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.

Active voice : Bobby kicked the ball so hard. (objek)
Passive voice : The ball was kicked by Bobby so hard. (subjek)
Pada passive voice, the ball menerima aksi kicked (verb) oleh Bobby.

Dari contoh di atas dapat dilihat bahwa objek dari active voice menjadi subjek di passive voice, dan subjek passive voice ini hanya menerima aksi dari verb yang dilakukan.


Rumus Passive Voice

Rumus passive voice mengikuti rumus tenses active voice-nya. Yang selalu muncul di tiap rumus adalah be + V3. Be di sini dapat berupa be, been, being, am, is, are, was, ataupun were. Di samping itu, terdapat beberapa pengecualian seperti yang akan diberikan dalam ketentuan.

PRESENT  
Simple present S + am, is, are + V3
Present continuous S + am, is, are + being + V3
Present perfect S + has, have + been + V3
Present perfect continuous S + has, have + been + V3
PAST  
Simple past S + was, were + V3
Past continuous S + was, were + being + V3
Past perfect S + had + been + V3
Past perfect continuous S + had + been + V3
PRESENT FUTURE             
Simple future S + will + be + V3
Future continuous S + will + be + V3
Future perfect S + will + have + been + V3
Future perfect continuous S + will + have + been + V3
PAST FUTURE
Past future S + would + be + V3
Past future continuous S + would + be + V3
Past future perfect S + would + have + been + V3
Past future perfect continuous S + would + have + been + V3

Keterangan:

  1. Being hanya terdapat pada tenses present continuous dan past continuous. Tenses continuous yang lain tidak menggunakan being dalam polanya.
  2. Kalimat yang dapat dipasifkan hanyalah kalimat yang memiliki objek (transitif).
    He left his family : bisa dipasifkan karena berobjek (his family)
    He left this morning : tidak bisa dipasifkan karena tidak berobjek (this morning adalah adverb)
  3. Objek di kalimat aktif (active voice) menjadi subjek di kalimat pasif (passive voice).
    Active voice : Robert is washing the car in the backyard.
    Passive voice : The car is being washed by Robert in the backyard.
  4. Subjek kalimat pasif tersebut menentukan jenis verb yang digunakan, apakah tunggal atau jamak.
    Active voice : Robert is washing the cars in the backyard.
    Passive voice : The cars are being washed by Robert in the backyard.
  5. By + agent (pelaku) tidak selalu muncul dalam passive voice, utamanya jika pelaku tidak jelas, tidak penting (untuk disebutkan), atau telah dikenal luas.
    Active voice : Someone took my book yesterday.
    Passive voice : My book was taken yesterday.

Contoh Passive Voice

Berikut contoh passive voice dalam kalimat.

  1. Jack has mailed the letters. (present perfect)
    The letters have been mailed by Jack.
  2. Mr Brown will plan the meeting. (simple future)
    The meeting will be planned by Mr Brown.
  3. That company hires many programmers. (simple present)
    Many programmers are hired by the company.
  4. The students were singing a traditional song. (past continuous)
    A traditional song was being sung by the students.
  5. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago. (simple past)
    –   (tidak bisa, karena tidak berobjek)

Penggunaan Passive Voice

Passive voice biasanya digunakan dalam beberapa kondisi, seperti:

  1. Ketika pelaku aksi (doer of action) tidak diketahui
    Active voice : Somebody has hacked the website.
    Passive voice : The website has been hacked.
  2. Ketika pelaku aksi tidak penting untuk disebutkan
    Active voice : Students can check the schedule via app.
    Passive voice : The schedule can be checked via app.
  3. Ketika ingin memberikan penekanan kepada objek
    Active voice : A group of researchers at the WHO revealed the efficacy of the existing vaccines.
    Passive voice : The efficacy of the existing vaccines was revealed by a group of researchers at the WHO.
  4. Ketika ingin memvariasikan struktur tulisan
    Active voice : The supervisor noticed that the company cut the year-end bonus by 30%.
    Passive voice : The supervisor noticed that the year-end bonus was cut by 30%.

Passive Voice dengan Get

Selain be + V3, passive voice terkadang juga dinyatakan dengan get + V3. Dalam hal ini, get menggantikan be dan berubah bentuk sesuai dengan tenses yang digunakan (get, gets, got, gotten, getting). Contoh:

  1. I broke my favorite cup. (simple past)
    My favorite cup was broken.
    My favorite cup got broken.
  2. The courier will deliver those packages on time. (simple future)
    Those packages will be devilered on time.
    Those packages will get devilered on time.
  3. The department has promoted him to a higher position. (present perfect)
    He has been promoted to a higher position.
    He has gotten promoted to a higher position.

Transitive Verbs tanpa Passive Voice

Syarat utama suatu kalimat dapat dipasifkan adalah kalimat tersebut memiliki transivite verb, yang diikuti oleh objek. Akan tetapi, tidak semua transitive verb dapat dipasifkan, khususnya yang berupa stative verb, seperti lack, have, contain, believe, dsb. Hal ini terjadi karena kalimat tersebut akan terdengar janggal jika dipasifkan. Contoh:

  1. The article lacks novelty.
    Novelty is lacked by the article.
  2. They had wonderful time.
    Wonderful time was had by them.
  3. The fruit contains noxious substances.
    Noxious substances are contained by the fruit.

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