PREPOSITION

Preposition atau kata depan adalah kata yang diletakkan sebelum noun, pronoun, noun phrase, noun clause, dan gerund (objects of preposition). Pola:

Preposition + noun, pron, NP, N Cl, V-ing

Contoh:

He likes listening to music.
To (preposition) diikuti oleh music yang berkelas kata noun.
Let’s wait for her to come.
Preposisi for mengawali pronoun her.
My house is beside the church.
Beside, yang berkelas kata preposition, mengawali the church (noun phrase).
I have no idea of what you’re going to do.
Of
juga termasuk preposition, dan what you’re going to do merupakan noun clause.
Her sister is awfully keen on watching movies.
On
memiliki kelas kata preposition, dan watching berupa gerund (V-ing).

 

A. ONE-WORD PREPOSITIONS

aboard before during off throughout 
about behind except (for) on till
above below for opposite to
across beneath from out (of) toward(s)
after beside*** in outside under
against besides**** inside over underneath
along (side) between into past until
amid (= amidst) beyond less per up
among* but like plus versus (= against)
around** by minus re via (= by way of)
At despite near since with
Atop (= on top of) down of through without

* Amongst lebih disukai di BE.
** Bentuk informalnya adalah round.
*** Beside mempunyai arti “disamping” secara fisik, contoh: She sat beside me.
**** Besides mempunyai arti “disamping” TIDAK secara fisik, contoh: She likes shopping besides sightseeing.

baring during including regarding touching
concerning excepting notwithstanding respecting
considering excluding pending saving

 


B. TWO-WORD PREPOSITIONS

  1. Dengan OF

    ahead of exclusive of irrespective of east (west, south, north) of
    apropos of inclusive of regardless of
    because of  instead of short of
  1. Dengan TO

    according to on to (= onto) relative to
    antecedent to owing to subject to
    as to previous (ly) to subsequent (ly) to
    contrary to prior to thanks to
    counter to pursuant to up to
    due to next to  
  1. Dengan WITH

    along with concurrently with together with
  2. Dengan FOR

    as for except (for) save (for)
    but (for)  
  3. Dengan FROM

    apart from aside from away from
  4. Dengan UP

    up against up till up to
    up at up until

 


C. MORE-THAN-TWO-WORD PREPOSITIONS

PREPOSITION PREPOSITION
by dint
means
order
reason
virtue
way
of on the face
occasion
part

point
strength
top
of
at the cost
hands
point

risk
of as a consequence
result
of
with the exception
purpose
of in accordance
addition
advance
back
care
case
comparison
connection
contrast
favor
front
lieu
proportion
regard
respect
return
spite
with
to
of
of
of
of
with
with
with
of
of
of
to
to
to
for
of
with an eye
a view
to in (the) course
event
face
light
process
of
for fear
lack
want
of in the middle (midst) of
for the benefit
purpose
sake
of In common
compliance
search
recognition
default
opposition
with
with
of
of
of
to
with reference
regard
respect
to on account
behalf
pain
of

 


D. FREE AND BOUND PREPOSITIONS
Berdasarkan jenisnya, preposition dikelompokkan menjadi dua, yaitu:

  1. Free Preposition (bebas)
    Free preposition adalah preposisi yang penggunaannya tidak terikat dengan kata-kata tertentu atau, dengan kata lain, yang dapat digunakan secara bebas. Yang termasuk ke dalam kelompok ini adalah preposisi yang disebutkan di muka. Contoh:

    I’m sitting on a bench.
    The grass over the hill looks greener.
    He was willing to sacrifice anything for the sake of his family.
  2. Bound Preposition (terikat)
    Bound preposition adalah preposisi yang mempunyai aturan dalam penggunaannya. Preposisi ini digunakan terikat dengan kata-kata tertentu seperti: verb, noun, dan adjective.
    a) verb + prep

    VERB + PREP

    Contoh:

    accuse sb* of
    apologize (to sb) for
    apply to sb/ for sth**

    ask for/ about
    attend to
    beg for
    believe in
    beware of
    change sb with
    compare sth with

    comply with
    comform to

    consist of
    deal in
    depend on
    dream of
    fight with sb for
    fine sb for
    hope for                                 
    insist on
    live on (food/ money)
    long for

    object to
    occur to
    persist in
    prefer sb/ sth to sb/ sth
    prepare for
    quarrel with sb about

    refer to
    rely on
    remain sb of
    resort to
    succeed in
    suspect sb of
    think of/ about
    wait for
    warn sb of/ about
    wish for

    * sb = somebody
    ** sth = something

    Do you believe in ghosts?
    They were charged with receiving stolen goods.
    You haven’t complied with the regulations.
    For a week she lived on bananas and milk.
    It never occured to me to insure the house.
    They persist in defying the law.
    When arguments failed he resorted to threats.

    b) noun + prep

    NOUN + PREP

    Contoh:

    choice of
    excuse for
    intention of
    method for
    possibility for
    reason for
    George has no excuse for dropping out the school.
    There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.
    There is no reason for leaving this early.
    Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.

    c) adj + prep

    ADJ + PREP

    Contoh:

    absorbed in
    accustomed to
    afraid of
    anxious of/ about
    ashamed of
    aware of
    bad at/ for
    capable of
    confident of
    exposed to
    fit for
    fond of
    frightened of/ at
    good at/ for
    interested in
    keen on
    liable for/ to
    nervous of
    pleased with
    prepared for
    proud of
    ready for
    responsible for/ to
    scared of
    sorry for/ about
    successful in
    suspicious of
    terrified of
    tired of
    used to
    He was absorbed in his book.
    She is afraid/ frightened/ scared of the dark.
    He is bad/ good at chess. (a bad/ good player)

E. PREPOSITIONS VS ADVERBS
Dalam bahasa Inggris, ada banyak kata yang termasuk preposisi juga adverb. Untuk membedakannya yaitu: preposisi apabila diikuti oleh objek preposisi (noun, pronoun NP, N Cl, dan gerund), dan adverb apabila sebagai kata akhir atau diikuti komponen selain objek preposisi. Contoh:

Preposition:
He fell down the stairs.
Please come in the house.
He got off the bus at the corner.
Adverb:
He fell down.
Please come in.
He got off at the corner.

 

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