Pengertian, Jenis, dan Contoh Root

Bahasa Inggris memiliki banyak root word atau akar kata yang diambil dari bahasa Yunani dan Latin. Pemahaman tentang akar kata ini dapat membantu kita dalam menebak arti kata-kata tertentu dan, pada gilirannya, akan memperkuat serta memperkaya kosakata kita secara signifikan. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, jenis, dan contoh root dalam bahasa Inggris.

Pengertian Root

Root (akar kata), atau sering juga disebut root word, adalah kata atau bagian dasar kata yang mengandung makna. Dari definisi ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa root dapat berupa kata yang dapat berdiri sendiri ataupun hanya merupakan elemen kata yang masih memerlukan elemen lainnya untuk membentuk kata. Dalam bahasa Inggris, root yang berbentuk elemen kata ini biasanya berasal dari bahasa Yunani dan Latin. Root dapat dicontohkan dengan kata-kata seperti di bawah ini.

Kata : dog, bark, loud, red
Elemen kata : carn (daging) pada kata carnivorous
(jauh dari) pada kata abnormal
(di dalam) pada kata endotherm
(mengambil) pada kata perceive

Dari contoh di atas dapat dilihat bahwa root dapat berupa kata utuh ataupun elemen kata saja.

Jenis dan Contoh Root

Berikut jenis dan contoh root dalam bahasa Inggris.

Root words Meanings Examples and Definitions
a/n not, without abyss – without bottom;
achromatic – without color;
anhydrous – without water
a on afire – on fire;
ashore – on the shore;
aside – on the side
a, ab/s from, away, off abduct – carry away by force;
abnormal – away from normal, not normal;
absent – away, not present;
aversion – the act of turning away from
a/c/d to, toward, near accelerate – to increase the speed of;
accessible – easily entered or obtained;
admittance – allowing into
acro top, height, tip, beginning acrobat – a “high walker”;
acronym – a word from the first letters;
acrophobia – fear of height
act do activity – something that a person does;
react – to do something in response;
aer/o air aerate – to let air reach something;
aerial – relating to the air;
aerospace – the air space
agr/i/o farming agriculture – management of the land;
agrarian – relating to land management
alg/o pain neuralgia – pain caused by a nerve;
analgesic – a drug that makes one pain free;
nostalgia – aching for the familiar
ambi, amphi both, on both sides, around ambiguous – having some meanings
ambul walk, move amble – to walk in a slow, relaxed way;
ambulant – walking or moving around;
ambulance – a vehicle that moves a patient
ami/o love amiable – friendly, pleasant, lovable;
amity – friendly and peaceful relations;
amorous – showing romantic love
ana up, back, against,
again, throughout
anachronism – not in place in time
andr/o man, male androgynous – being both male and female;
android – resembling a human;
misandry – hatred towards men
anim life, spirit animal – a living organism;
animate – to make alive;
equanimity – of balanced spirit
ann/enn year anniversary – a date observed once a year;
annual – happening once a year;
millennium – 1,000 years
ante before, in front antecede – to come before the time;
antemeridian – before noon;
anteroom – a small room before main room
anth/o flower chrysanthemum – a name of flower;
anthozoan – half plant, half animal
anthrop/o human anthropology – the study of mankind;
philanthropy – the love to mankind
anti against, opposite of antiseptic – preventing infection;
antisocial – opposing social norm
apo, apho away, off, separate aphorism – a short expression of truth;
apology – an explicit expression of regret
aqu/a water aquarium – a water container for fish;
aquatic – relating to water;
aqueduct – a pipeline for water
arbor tree arborist – someone working with trees;
arbor – a shady area formed by trees;
arborous – having many trees
arch/i chief, most important, rule archbishop – the highest ranking bishop;
archenemy – chief or worst enemy;
matriarch – a female who rules a group;
monarch – a king or queen
arch/a/i primitive, ancient archaeology – the study of ancient cultures;
archaic – belonging to an earlier period;
archive – a collection of historical materials
arthr/o joint arthroscope – a tool to see inside a joint;
arthritis – inflammation of a joint;
arthropod – invertebrates with jointed legs
art skill artifact – object made by a person’s skill;
artisan – a person skilled in a craft;
artist – a person who creates skillfully
star, stars, outer space astronaut – a person traveling to the stars;
astronomer – someone studying the stars;
asterisk – a star-shaped sign
aud/i/io hear audible – loud enough to be heard;
audience – people who listen to a program;
audiovisual – relating to sound and vision
auto self, same, one autograph – a person’s own signature;
automatic – moving by itself
avi/a bird aviary – a large enclosure for birds;
aviatrix – a female airplane pilot
bar/o pressure, weight baryon – heavy elementary particle
bell/i war bellicose – warlike;
belligerent – hostile, ready to fight;
rebel – person who opposes and fights
bene good, well beneficial – producing a good effect;
benevolent – showing kindness or goodwill
bi/n two, twice, once in every two biannual – happening twice a year;
binoculars – optical device with two lenses;
bilateral – of or involving two sides
bibli/o book bibliography – a list of books as sources;
bibliomania – an extreme love of books;
bibliophile – a person who loves books
bio life, living matter biology – the science of life
blast/o cell, primitive, immature cell blastula – an early stage of embryo
burs pouch, purse bursar – an administrative officer of funds;
bursary – treasury of college or monastery;
disburse – to expend a public fund
calc stone calcify – to harden into calcium compounds
cand glowing, iridescent candid – free from bias, prejudice, or malice;
candle – something that gives light
capt, cept, ceive take, hold intercept – to stop or interrupt;
perceive – to take notice of something;
captivating – taking hold of
cardi/o heart cardiac – relating to the heart;
cardiogenic – resulting from heart disease;
cardiologist – a heart doctor
carn/i flesh, meat carnivorous – flesh-eating;
carnal – pertaining to the body or flesh;
incarnate – given bodily form
cata down, against
completely, intensive,
according to
cataclysm – a flood or other disaster;
catalog – a complete listing;
catastrophe – turning for the worst
to burn cauterize – to burn with a hot instrument;
caustic – capable of burning or eating away;
holocaust – total devastation, esp. by fire
go, yield exceed – to go beyond the limits;
recede – to go back
celer fast accelerate – to increase the speed of;
decelerate – to reduce the speed of
cent/i hundred, hundredth centennial – the 100th anniversary;
centimeter – 1/100 of a meter;
century – 100 years
centr/o/i center egocentric – self-centered;
eccentric – not according to norm;
centrifugal – moving outward from a center
cephal/o head encephalitis – inflammation of the brain;
cephalic – pertaining to the head
cerebr/o brain cerebral – pertaining to the brain;
cerebrate – to use the brain
cert sure ascertain- to find out with certainty;
certain – being absolutely sure;
certify – to state that something is true
chrom/o chromat/o, chros color, pigment achromatic – without color;
chromium – blue-white metallic element;
chromatics – the study of color
chron/o time chronic – lasting for a long time;
chronological – in time order;
synchronize – happening at the same time
chrys/o gold, yellow helichrysum – a golden/yellow flower;
chrysolite – a yellowish gem
cide, cise cut, kill homicide – murder;
incisor – a sharp tooth for cutting food;
insecticide – a chemical used to kill insects
around, about circumnavigate – to sail around;
circumscribe – to draw around;
circumspect – looking around
claim, clam shout, speak out clamor – to shout and make noise;
exclaim – to cry out loudly and suddenly
clar clear clarification – an explanation;
clarify – to make something clear;
declare – to state something clearly
clud, clus close conclusion – the end or last part;
exclusion – shutting out, rejecting;
seclude – to keep away from; to isolate
cline lean inclination – a leaning toward;
incline – a surface that slopes or leans;
recline – to lean back and relax
co with, together, joint coauthor – a writer working with another one
col together, jointly collaborate – to work together;
collision – smashing together
com together, common commemorate – to memorize together;
composition – an arrangement of parts
cogn/i know cognition – process of acquiring knowledge;
incognito – disguised so no one knows you;
recognize – to discover that one knows
con with, jointly concur – to agree with someone;
contemporary – of the same time period
contra/o against, opposite contradict – to argue against, contraflow;
contrary – not in agreement;
controversy – disagreement
corp/o body corpse – a dead body;
corporal – pertaining to the body
cosm/o universe cosmonaut – a Russian astronaut;
cosmos – the universe;
microcosm – a miniature universe
counter opposite, contrary, opposing counteract – to oppose an effect;
countermand – to cancel a previous order;
counteroffensive – attack against an attack
cranio skull craniology – the study of skull;
cranium – skull of vertebrates;
cranial – pertaining to the skull
cred believe credence – belief that something is true;
credulous – believing things too easily;
incredible – unbelievable
cruc cross crucial – having the form of a cross ;
crucifix – the cross as Christian emblem
crypto hidden, secret cryptic – of hidden meaning;
cryptography – science of secret codes;
encrypt – encode into secret code
cumul mass, heap accumulate – to gather or pile up;
cumulative – gradually building up
curr, curs run concurrent – running parallel;
current – flowing easily and smoothly
cycl circle, ring bicycle – a vehicle with two wheels;
cycle – a sequence that is repeated;
cyclone – a storm with circling winds
de reduce, away, down, remove decelerate – to slow down, reduce speed;
dethrone – to remove from power;
debug – to remove bugs
ten decade – 10 years;
December – the 10th month in calendar
deci one tenth deciliter – a tenth of a liter;
decimate – reduce dramatically;
decibel – one tenth of volume unit
dem/o people democracy – government of the people;
demographic – the study of people;
epidemic – spreading in a region
demi half, less than demitasse – a small cup of coffee
dendr/o/i tree dendriform – in the shape of a tree
dent, dont tooth dental – relating to teeth;
dentist – a doctor for the teeth;
dentures – a set of false teeth
derm/a skin dermatologist – a doctor for the skin;
pachyderm – animals with very thick skin
dermatitis – inflammation of the skin
di/plo two, twice dichromatic – displaying two colors;
diploma – a letter folded double;
dilemma – having two alternatives
di/s apart, away,
not, to the opposite
digression – departure from the main issue;
disappear – to move out of sight;
dissect – to cut apart piece by piece.
dia through, between,
apart, across
dialog – conversation between two people
dict speak contradict – to express the opposite of;
prediction – statement foretelling the future
domin master dominate – to be the master of;
domineering – excessively controlling;
predominate – to have more power
don/at give donation – a contribution or gift;
donor – someone who gives something;
pardon – to give forgiveness for an offense
duc/t lead conduct – to lead musicians to play music;
educate – to lead to knowledge;
deduction – a subtraction of an amount.
du/o two, twice duplicate – make an identical copy;
duet – a musical composition for two voices;
duo – a pair thought of as being together
dur harden, to last, lasting durable – having the quality of lasting;
duration – length of time something lasts;
enduring – able to last.
dyn/a/am power, energy, strength dynamo – a generator of energy;
dynamic – having physical energy/power;
dynamite – a powerful explosive.
dys abnormal, bad dyspepsia – abnormal digestion;
dystopia – imaginary place of total misery
e out, away emissary – representative sent on mission;
eject – throw out forcefully
ego self egoistic – self-centered;
alter ego – a higher aspect of oneself
em, en into, cover with, cause empower – put into power;
engorge – make larger
endo within, inside endogamy – marriage within one’s clan
enn/i, anni years bicentennial – of a period of 200 years;
centennial – of a period of 100 years;
perennial – lasting through many years.
en, in inside, inwards envision – to picture in the mind;
enclose – lock inside;
inwards – towards the inside.
ep/i on, upon, over,
among, at, after,
to, outside
epidemic – rapid spread of a bad thing;
epilogue – a short speech given after a play;
epicenter – the center of an earthquake.
equ/i equal, equally equanimity – calm temperament of temper;
equation – a statement of equality
erg/o work ergonomics – study of working environment;
energy – the power to accomplish work
esth/aesth feeling, sensation, beauty esthetician – someone who beautifies;
aesthetic – pertaining to a sense of beauty;
kinesthesia – sensation of bodily movement
ethno race, people ethnic – a defined group of people;
ethnology – the science of people and races
eu good, well euphonious – having a pleasant sound;
euphoria – feeling of well-being
ex from, out, excavate – to dig out;
exhale – to breathe out;
extract – to pull out
extra, extro outside, beyond extraordinary – beyond ordinary;
extraterrestrial – outside the Earth;
extrovert – an outgoing person
fac/t make, do artifact – an object made by a person;
factory – a place where things are made;
malefact – a person who does wrong
fer bear, bring, carry confer – to bring an honor to someone;
ferry – a boat that carries passengers;
transfer – to move to another place
fid faith confide – place trust in someone;
fidelity – faithfulness;
fiduciary – a trustee
flect bend deflect – to bend by hitting;
inflection – bending in the voice’s tone;
flexible – easily bending
flower florist – someone working with flowers;
floral – flowerlike;
flora – plant life of a particular time or area
for completely forsaken – completely lost;
forgiven – completely given
fore in front of, previous, earlier forebear – ancestor;
forecast – a preview of events to be
form shape formation- something that is formed;
reformatory – intended for reformation
fract, frag break fracture – a break;
fragile – easy to break;
fraction – a part or element of a larger whole
fug flee, run away, escape fugitive – a person who is running away;
refuge – a sheltered place to flee to;
refugee – a person seeking protection
funct perform, work defunct – no longer working or alive;
function – to perform a role normally;
malfunction – to fail to work correctly
fus pour confusion – feeling hard to make sense
fuse – to melt by heating;
infuse – to put into
gastr/o stomach gastric – pertaining to the stomach;
gastritis – inflammation of the stomach
birth, production,
formation, kind
genealogy – study of the history of a family;
genetic – relating to heredity of genes
geo earth, soil, global geography – study of the earth’s surface;
geology – study of the structure of the earth;
geoponics – soil based agriculture
ger old age geriatrics – medicine for the elderly;
gerontocracy – the rule of the elders;
gerontology – the science of aging
giga a billion gigabyte – one billion bytes;
gigahertz – one billion Hz/sec;
gigawatt – one billion watts
gon angle decagon – a polygon with 10 angles;
octagon – a geometrical figure with 8 angles
gram letter, written diagram – a simple drawing;
grammar – rules of written language;
telegram – a message sent by telegraph
gran grain granule – a little grain (as of sugar)
graph/y writing, recording, written graphology – the study of handwritings;
autograph – written with one’s own hand
grat pleasing gratify – to please someone;
grateful – feeling thankful;
gratuity – a tip, token of appreciation
gyn/o/e woman, female gynephobia – fear of women;
gynecoid – resembling a woman
gress, grad/e/i to step, to go digression – departure from the main issue;
progress – movement forward or onward;
gradual – step by step
hect/o, hecat hundred hectoliter – 100 liters;
hectare – 100 ares or 10,000 square meters;
hectometer – 100 meters
helic/o spiral, circular helix – a spiral form;
helicon – a circular tuba
heli/o sun heliotropism – movement of the sun
hemi half, partial hemicycle – a semicircular structure;
hemisphere – one half of the earth;
hemistich – half a line of poetry
hem/o/a blood hemorrhage – clotting of the blood;
hemorrhoids – swelling of the blood vessels;
hemoglobin – red blood particle
hepa liver hepatitis – inflammation of the liver;
hepatoma – a tumor of the liver;
hepatotoxic – toxic and damaging to liver
hept/a seven heptagon – shape with seven angles;
heptateuch – seven books of Old Testament;
herbi grass, plant herbicide – any chemical to kill plants;
herbivorous – plant-eating;
herbal – relating to plants
hetero different, other heterogeneous – made of unrelated parts
hex/a six hexagon – a shape with six angles;
hexameter – a verse measured in six;
hexapod – having six legs
histo tissue histology – study of tissue structures
like, alike, same homogeneous – of the same nature or kind;
homonym – sounding alike
hydr/o liquid, water hydrate – to add water to;
hydrophobia – intense fear of water;
hydraulic – operated by liquid force
hygr/o moisture, humidity hygrometer – tool to measure humidity
hyper too much, over,
excessive, beyond
hyperactive – very restless;
hypercritical – too critical;
hypertension – above normal pressure
hyp/o under hypoglycemia – low level of blood sugar;
hypothesis – a theory to be proven
iatr/o medical care geriatrics – medical care of the elderly;
pediatrician – a doctor who treats children;
podiatry – medical care for feet
icon/o image icon – simple graphic of symbolic content;
iconology – science of symbols and icons
idio peculiar, personal, distinct idiomatic – peculiar to a certain language;
idiot – someone distinctly foolish or stupid
il, in in, into illuminate – to give light to;
innovation – a new idea, method, or device;
inspection – act of examining or reviewing
ig, il, im,
in, ir
not, without illegal – not legal;
impossible – not possible;
inappropriate – not appropriate;
irresponsible – not responsible
imag likeness image – a likeness of someone;
imaginative – able to think up new ideas;
imagine – to form a picture in the mind
infra beneath, below infrared – below the regular light spectrum
inter between, among, jointly intersection – a place roads come together;
intercept – to stop or interrupt the course of
within, inside intrastate – existing in one state;
intravenous – inside or into a vein
ir not irredeemable – not redeemable;
irreformable – not reformable;
irrational – not rational
iso equal isometric – having equality of measure;
isothermal – having constant temperature
ject throw eject – to throw someone/something out;
interject – to throw remark into discussion;
project – to cast or throw something.
jud law judgment – a decision of a court of law;
judicial – having to do with courts of law;
judiciary – a system of courts of law.
junct join conjunction – word joining sentences’ parts;
disjunction – a disconnection;
junction – a place where two things join
juven young juvenile – youthful or childish;
rejuvenate – to bring back to youth
kilo thousand kilobyte – 1,000 bytes;
kilometer – 1,000 meter;
kilograms – 1,000 grams
motion, division kinetics – study of the force of motion;
cinematography – motion picture making
lab work collaborate – to work with a person;
elaborate – to work out the details;
laborious – requiring a lot of hard work
lact/o milk lactate – to give milk, nurse;
lactose – the sugar contained in milk
later side bilateral – of or involving two sides;
unilateral – affecting one side of something
white, colorless leukocyte – a mature white blood cell;
leucine – a white, crystalline amino acid
lex word, law, reading lexicology – the study and history of words;
alexia – loss of the ability to read;
illegal – not authorized by the official rules
liber free liberate – to set free;
libertine – a person with a free, wild lifestyle;
liberty – freedom
lingu language, tongue linguist – one who studies languages;
multilingual – in multiple languages;
linguine – long, flat “tongue-shaped” pasta
lip/o fat lipase – enzyme that breaks down fat;
lipoid – resembling fat.
lite, ite,
mineral, rock, fossil apatite – a group of common minerals;
granite – a hard, granular rock;
monolith – a remarkable, unique stone
loc place location – a place;
relocate – to move to a new place
log/o word, doctrine, discourse logic – correct reasoning;
monologue – a long speech by one speaker;
analogy – similarity between two things
loqu, locu speak loquacious – very talkative;
elocution – art of public speaking
luc light elucidate – to explain, to throw light on;
lucid – easily understood, giving off light;
translucent – allowing light through
lud, lus to play prelude – introduction to major performance;
illusion – misleading optical image;
delude – to mislead, deceive
lumin light illuminate – to fill with light;
lumen – unit measuring light
lun/a/i moon lunar – relating to the moon;
lunarscape – the surface of the moon;
lunatic – insane (driven mad by the moon)
macro large, great macroevolution – large scale evolution;
macromolecule – a large molecule
magn/a/i great, large magnify – make larger;
magnificent – grand
mal/e bad, ill, wrong malcontent – wrong content;
malaria – infectious disease from “bad air”
malicious – showing strong ill will
man/i/u hand maneuver – to move by hand;
manual – done with the hands;
manuscript – a book written by hand
mand to order command – an order or instruction;
demand – a hard-to-ignore order;
mandate – an official order
mania madness, insanity,
excessive desire
bibliomania – a crazy love of books;
egomania – a mad love of oneself;
maniac – an insane person
mar/i sea marina – a harbor for pleasure boats;
maritime – relating to the sea;
submarine – an undersea boat;
aquamarine – color of sea water
mother maternal – relating to motherhood;
maternity – the state of being a mother;
matriarch – a woman head of a household
max greatest maximal – the best or greatest possible;
maximize – to make as great as possible;
maximum – the greatest amount
medi middle medieval – pertaining to the Middle Ages;
medium – in the middle;
mediocre – only of medium (inferior) quality
mega great, large, million megalopolis – area with many nearby cities;
megaphone – device projecting a loud voice;
megastructure – a huge structure
melan/o black melancholy – a state of dark emotions;
melanoma – malignant dark skin tumor;
melodrama – a dark, pathetic drama
memor/i remember commemorate – to honor the memory of;
memorial – remembering a person or event;
memory – stock of retained knowledge
dip, dive immerse – to dip something into a liquid;
submerge – to dip something into water
meso middle Mesoamerica – Middle America
meta change, after, beyond, between metaphysics – study of nature and reality;
metamorphosis – complete change of form
measure chronometer – instrument measuring time;
metric – measure
micro very small, short, minute microbe – a very small living thing
mid middle midriff – area between chest and waist;
midterm – middle of a term in school;
midway – halfway between
migr move migrant – person moving between places;
migration – the process of moving
milli onethousandth millimeter – one thousandth of a meter;
millibar – one thousandth of a bar;
milliliter – one thousandth of a liter
min/i small, less mini – something that is very small;
minuscule – extremely tiny;
minutiae – very small or trivial details
mis/o bad, badly, wrong, wrongly,
to hate
misbehave – to behave badly;
misprint – an error in printing
miss, mit send, let go dismiss – to send someone away;
missile – a weapon sent into the air;
emit – to send something out;
admittance – entry
mob move immobilize – to stop from moving;
mobile – able to move freely;
mobility – the quality of being able to move
mon/o one, single, alone monochromat – having one color;
monologue – a speech by one person;
monotheism – belief in one god
mot, mov move motion – the act of moving;
motivate – to move someone to action;
promote – to move someone forward;
removable – able to be moved
morph/o form metamorphosis – complete change of form;
amorphous – without distinct shape or form
mort death immortal – living forever, unable to die;
mortal – certain to die;
mortician – an undertaker
multi many, more than one or two multicolored – having many colors;
multimedia – using a range of media;
multitasking – doing many things at once
mut change immutable – not changing;
mutant – a changed organism;
mutate – to undergo a change
my/o muscle myocardium – heart’s middle muscle;
myasthenia – muscle fatigue or weakness;
myosin – common protein in muscle tissue
narr tell narrate – to tell a story;
narrative – a story;
narrator – a person who tells a story
nat born innate – included since birth;
natal – relating to birth;
natural – gotten at birth, not afterward
nav ship circumnavigate – to sail around a place;
naval – relating to a navy or warships;
navigate – to sail a ship through a place
necr/o dead, death necrophil – loving death;
necrosis – death of tissue due to disease;
necrology – a list of dead people
neg no negate – to say it didn’t happen;
negative – meaning “no”;
renege – to go back on a promise
neo new, recent neoclassic – a revival of classic form
nephr/o kidney nephritis – inflammation of the kidneys;
nephrotomy – surgical incision of a kidney
neur/o nerve neuralgia – pain along a nerve;
neurologist – a nerve-specialized doctor
nom/in name misnomer – error in naming something;
nominate – to name for election
non no, not, without nonfiction – true, real, not made-up;
nonsense – without sense
not mark notable – marked as worthy of attention;
annotate – to add remarks
declare announce – to declare in public;
denounce – to proclaim harsh criticism;
enunciate – to declare something clearly
nov new innovate – to introduce a new way;
novelty – something new;
novice – a person who is new at a job
numer number enumerate – to name a number of items;
numerous – a large number
ob, op in the way, against object – to be against something;
obscure – hard to understand;
opposition – action against
oct/a/o eight octagon – a figure with 8 sides and 8 angles;
octogenarian – person in his or her 80s;
octopus – sea animal with 8 arms
ocu eye monocula – relating to one eye;
oculist – an eye doctor
od path, way diode –  tube with cathode and anode
odor  smell, scent malodorous – having a terribly bad smell;
odoriferous – something that bears a scent
omni all omnipotent – with all the power;
omniscient – knowing all things;
omnivorous eating all foods
op/t/s eye, visual condition, sight optic – relating to the eyes;
optician – a person who fits eyeglasses;
autopsy – the examination of a dead body
opt best optimal – the best, the most desirable;
optimize – to make the best of;
optimum – the best something could be
ortho straight orthography – the correct way of writing
osteo bone osteology – the study of bones
out goes beyond,
surpasses, exceeds
outgoing – being of lively, sharing nature;
outdoing – doing better than;
outdoor – outside
over excessive overstock – more supplies than is desirable
oxi/oxy sharp oxymoron – combining two conflicting ideas
oxidize – corrode a surface
pale/o ancient paleontology – study of ancient fossils;
paleography – study of ancient writing;
paleolithic – period of the Stone Age
pan all, any, everyone panacea – a cure for all diseases;
panorama – an all-around view;
pantheism – the worship of all gods;
pandemic – affecting all
para beside, beyond, abnormal,
parallel – alongside an equal distance apart
para protection from parachute – protection from falling
father paternal – relating to fathers;
paternity – fatherhood;
patriarch – a man who rules a group
path feeling, emotion antipathy – a feeling of great dislike;
apathy – a lack of feeling or interest
ped/i/e foot, feet pedal – a lever pushed by the foot;
pedestrian – one who walks;
pedicure – cosmetic treatment of feet
pel drive, force compel – to force someone to act;
expel – to drive someone out of a place;
repel – to force back
pent/a five pentagon – shape having 5 angles;
pentagram – a five-pointed star;
pentathlon – a contest with five events
digestion dyspepsia – abnormal digestion;
peptic – aiding digestion;
pepsin – a digestive enzyme
per through, throughout permanent – lasting throughout all time;
permeate – to spread throughout;
persist – to continue for a long time;
perennial – lasting through many years
peri around, enclosing peripheral – lying outside of the center;
perimeter – the outer boundary of an area
phag/e to eat sarcophagy – cannibalism;
xylophagous – feeding on wood
phil/o love, friend philanthropist – one who loves humanity;
philology – the love of words;
philosophy – the love of wisdom;
bibliophil – loving books
sound cacophony – loud, unpleasant sounds;
phonetic – relating to human speech sounds
phot/o light photogenic – caused by light;
photon – the smallest possible unit of light
phyll/o leaf chlorophyll – green pigments in leaves
phys nature, medicine, the body physical – relating to the body;
physician – a doctor;
physique – nature and shape of one’s body
phyt/o/e plant, to grow hydrophyte – a plant growing only in water;
neophyte – a new believer
plas/t/m to form, development,
forming cells
protoplasm – the living portion of a cell;
plastic – able to be formed
plaud, plod, plaus, plos approve, clap applaud – to show approval of;
plausible – worthy of being applauded
pneum/o breathing, lung, air, spirit pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs;
pneumatic – using the force of air;
dyspnea – difficulty breathing
pod/e foot podiatrist – a doctor for the feet;
podium – a small platform to stand on;
tripod – a stand or frame with 3 legs
poli city metropolis – a large city;
politics – a action of a government
poly many, more than one polychrome – with many colors
pon place, put opponent – a person against an action, idea;
postpone – to put off doing something
pop people popular – appealing to a lot of people;
population – all people living in an area;
populist – a supporter of the rights of people
port carry export – to carry goods out of a place;
portable – able to be carried;
porter – a person who carries luggage
pos place, put deposit – to place or drop something;
position – the place where someone is
post after, behind posthumous – after someone’s death;
postpone – to delay something
pre earlier, before, in front of prepare – to get ready in advance
pro before, in front of,
for, forward
prognosis – a prediction of what will happen;
prologue – a passage before the main part;
prophet – a person who foretells the future
prot/o primitive, first, chief prototype – the first of a kind;
protocol – a first draft of a document
pseud/o wrong, false pseudonym – a fictitious name;
pseudopregnancy – a false pregnancy
psych/o mind, mental psyche – the human spirit or soul;
psychology – the study of the mind
to fight pugnacious – having a quarrelsome nature;
repugnant – offensive or revolting;
pungent – piercing
pul urge compulsion – a very strong urge;
expulsion – to someone out
purg clean purge – remove anything undesirable;
purgatory – a place to clean souls from sin
put think computer – an electronic thinking device;
dispute – to disagree with another thinking;
input – contribution of one’s thinking
pyr/o fire, heat pyrotechnics – the art of making fireworks;
pyretic – relating to or producing fever
quad/r/ri four quadrennium – period of 4 years;
quadruped – a 4-footed animal
quart fourth quarter – one fourth;
quart – a fourth of a gallon
quin/t five, fifth quintessence – pure essence;
quintuple – fivefold
root eradicate – pull out at the roots;
radish – an edible root of the mustard family
radio radiation, ray radioactive – emitting radiation
ram/i branch ramification – consequence of a decision;
ramify – to spread or branch out;
ramus – a branchlike part
re again, back, backward rebound – to spring back again;
rewind – to wind something backward;
reaction – a response
reg guide, rule regime – a government that rules;
regulate – to apply a rule
retro backward, back retroactive – relating to past things
rhin/o nose rhinoplasty – surgery of the nose
rhod/o red rhododendron – a red/pink flower;
rhodopsin – a purple pigment in the retina
rid laugh deride – to make fun of someone;
ridicule – to make fun or mock;
ridiculous – silly, causing laughter
flow, discharge hemorrhage – heavy blood flow
rub red ruby – deep red color;
rubella – measles;
bilirubin – reddish pigment in bile
rupt break, burst interrupt – to break into a conversation
rupture – a break in something
san health sane – mentally healthy;
sanitary – relating to cleanliness and health
scend climb, go ascend – to climb upward;
descend – to go or climb down
sci know conscious – knowing what is happening
omniscient – knowing everything
scler/o hard sclerometer – a device to measure hardness
scop/e/y see, examine, observe microscope – a device to see tiny things
write, written inscribe – to write letters or words;
scribe – a person who writes out documents
se apart secede – to formally break away from;
seclude – to keep away from;
serum – a liquid isolated out of another
sect cut dissect – to cut apart piece by piece;
bisect – to cut into two equal parts
sed, sid, sess sit reside – be stationed
self of, for, or by itself self-respect – respect for yourself
semi half, partial semiannual – every half year;
semicircle – half a circle;
semiconscious – partly conscious;
semiannual – every half of a year
sept/i seven September – the seventh month;
septet – a group of seven musicians
serv save, keep conserve – to save or keep something safe;
preserve – to save something;
reservation – a place kept for a person
sex six sextet – a composition or group of six;
sextuple – sixfold;
sexagenarian – person in his/her sixties
sol alone desolate – lonely, dismal, gloomy;
solitary – done alone, by yourself;
solo – one’s performance
sol sun solar – involving the sun;
parasol – umbrella protecting from the sun
somn/I sleep insomnia – inability to fall asleep;
somniloquy – talking in your sleep;
somnolent – feeling sleepy
son sound consonant – a speech sound;
sonorous – producing loud, full, rich sounds;
supersonic – faster than sound;
unison – as one voice
soph wise philosopher – a wise person
sophism – a clever but misleading argument
see, look circumspect – cautious, looking all around;
retrospective – looking back at past things;
spectator – a person who sees an event
sphere ball biosphere – round surface of the earth
spir breathe inspire – to stimulate or animate;
spirit – invisible life force
sta stand stable – standing steady and firm;
stagnant – standing still, not moving;
stationary – at a standstill, fixed
stell star interstellar – between the stars;
stellar – relating to stars
struct build construct – to build;
structure – something built
sub under, lower than,
inferior to
submarine – an underwater boat;
submerge – to put underwater;
substandard – inferior to standards
sum highest sum – the combined total of everything;
summation – the total, highest amount;
summit – the highest point or top
super higher in quality
or quantity
super bowl – the final annual football game;
superior – above average, better in quality;
supersonic – faster than the speed of sound
together, with, same symmetry – similarity in arrangement;
synergy – the combined effect;
synchronize – to occur at the same time
tact, tang touch contact – a state in which two things touch;
tactile – relating to the sense of touch;
tangible – able to be touched;
intact – with nothing missing
tax/o arrangement syntax – systematic arrangement of words;
taxonomy – science of classification
techno technique, skill technology – application of knowledge;
technocracy – rule of technology
tel/e/o far, distant, complete telescope – a device to view distant objects
temp/or time contemporary – existing at the same time;
temporal – relating to time;
temporary – lasting for a limited time
ten, tin, tent hold continent – serving to restrain or limit;
detention –  the act or fact of detaining;
ter, trit rub attrition – act of rubbing together;
detritus – a product of disintegration
term/ina end, limit terminate – to end;
exterminate – to destroy completely
terr/a/i land, earth extraterrestrial – existing outside the earth;
terrain – ground or land;
territory – an area of land
tetra four tetrapod – having 4 legs;
tetrarchy – government by 4 rulers
the put bibliotheca – a list or catalog of books;
theme – a proposition for discussion
the/o god monotheism – belief in one god;
polytheism – worshiping more than one god;
theology – the study of religion, god, etc
therm/o heat thermal – relating to heat;
thermos – an insulated jar to keep heat in;
thermostat – a device that controls heat
tort twist contortion – a twisted shape or position;
distort – to alter the shape or condition of
tox poison toxic – poisonous;
toxicology – the study of poisons;
intoxicated – influenced by drugs
tract pull, drag attract – to pull objects nearer;
tractor – a motor vehicle that pulls things
trans across, beyond, through transcontinental – across the continent;
transfer – to move between places
tri three, once in every three,
triangle – a figure with 3 sides and 3 angles;
triathlon – an athletic contest with 3 events;
tricycle – a 3-wheeI vehicle with pedals
ultra beyond, extreme, more than ultrahigh – extremely high
un not,opposite of, lacking unabridged – not shortened;
unfair – opposite of fair;
unfriendly – lacking friendliness
uni one, single unicycle – a vehicle with one wheel;
unique – the only one of its kind;
unison – as one voice
urb city urban – relating to a city;
urbanology – the study of city life
vac empty evacuate – to empty a dangerous place;
vacant – empty, not occupied;
vacation – a time without work
ven/t come circumvent – to bypass restrictions;
intervene – to come between
ver/I truth veracious – truthful, honest;
veracity – the truth;
verify – to make sure that something is true
verb word verbalize – to put into words;
adverb – a word relating to a verb
turn reverse – to turn around;
introvert – being turned towards the inside;
version – a variation of an original
vice acting in place of,
next in rank
vice-president – a person below president
vid see evident – clearly seen
conquer convince – to win someone over;
invincible – not able to be conquered;
victory – the conquest of an enemy
vis, vid see vision – the ability to see;
envision – to picture in the mind;
evident – clearly visible
live, life revival – the act of bringing back to life;
vital – pertaining to live;
vivacious – high-spirited and full of life
voc/i voice, call advocate – to speak in favor of;
vocalize – to produce with your voice
vol/i/u wish, will volition – act of making a choice or decision;
voluntary – resulting from your own free will
eat carnivorous – meat-eating;
voracious – eating food in great quantities;
devour – to eat quickly
xanth yellow xanthium – a genus of rough or spiny herbs;
xanthochromia – yellowish discoloration
xen/o foreign xenophobic – afraid of foreigners;
xenophile – attracted to foreigners
xer/o/I dry xerography – a dry photocopying process;
xeric – requiring small amounts of moisture
xyl wood xylocarp, xyloid – resembling wood
zo/o animal life zoology – study of animals;
zooid – resembling an animal
zyg/o pair zygote – a cell of the union of two gametes;
zygomorphic – having symmetrical form

Program Sertifikat Grammar

Tertarik untuk mengetahui sejauh mana pemahaman Anda terhadap grammar setelah mempelajarinya di website ini? Anda bisa mengambil tes grammar bersertifikat di sini:

Program Sertifikat Grammar

Daftar Materi di Linguistic Units

  1. ROOT (akar kata)
  2. MORPHEME (morfem)
  3. WORD (kata)
  4. PHRASE (frasa)
  5. CLAUSE (klausa)
  6. SENTENCE (kalimat)

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