PRESENT PERFECT

A. DENGAN VERB (KATA KERJA)

  Pola Contoh
(+) I/you/we/they + have + V3
She/he/it + has + V3
I/you/we/they have eaten
She/he/it has eaten
(-) I/you/we/they + have + not + V3
She/he/it + has + not + V3
I/you/we/they have not eaten
She/he/it has not eaten
(?) Have + I/you/we/they + V3?
Has + she/he/it + V3?
– Yes, she/he/it + has
– No, she/he/it + has + not
Have I/you/we/they eaten?
Has she/he/it eaten?
– Yes, she/he/it has
– No, she/he/it hasn’t

Keterangan:

  1. Have + not = haven’t
  2. Has + not = hasn’t

 


B. TANPA VERB (KATA KERJA)

  Pola Contoh
(+) I/you/we/they + have + been + pel*
She/he/it + has + been + pel
I/you/we/they have been lost
She/he/it has been lost
(-) I/you/we/they + have + been + pel
She/he/it + has + been + pel
I/you/we/they have not been lost
She/he/it has not been lost
(?) Have + I/you/we/they + been + pel?
Has + she/he/it + been + pel?
– Yes, she/he/it + has
– No, she/he/it + has + not
Have I/you/we/they been lost?
Has she/he/it been lost?
– Yes, she/he/it has
– No, she/he/it hasn’t

* Pel: pelengkap (adj, n, adv)

 


C. FUNGSI PRESENT PERFECT

  1. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang telah terjadi di masa lampau, tetapi waktunya tidak jelas
    already
    just
    just now
    (not) yet
    ever
    never

    Contoh:

    She has just sent me a letter.
  1. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang terjadi dari dulu sampai sekarang
    for
    since

    Contoh:

    I have had a cold for two weeks.
  1. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang terjadi beberapa kali di masa lalu
    Contoh:

    Alex has traveled to Brazil many times.
  2. Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang lebih lampau daripada simple present
    Present perfect = Kejadian 1
    Simple present = Kejadian 2

    Contoh:

    Kejadian 1 Kejadian 2
    After I have had breakfast, I go to work.
    She has studied before she goes to bed.

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