Pengertian, Jenis, Contoh, dan Fungsi Adverb

Adverb, atau kata ketengan dalam bahasa Indonesia, merupakan bagian dari parts of speech yang sangat penting. Karena adverb memberikan keterangan tambahan pada adjective dan adverb itu sendiri. Di samping itu, verb juga dapat menjelaskan verb dan bahkan kalimat. Berikut akan dipaparkan pengertian, jenis, contoh, dan fungsi adverb.

Pengertian Adverb

Adverb atau kata keterangan adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan adjective, adverb, verb, dan sentence. Penggunaan adverb ini dapat dicontohkan dengan kalimat di bawah ini.

She is extremely strange.
Extremely (adverb) menjelaskan strange (adjective), membentuk frasa “sangat aneh”.
She speaks so fluently.
So (adverb) menjelaskan fluently (adverb), membentuk frasa “dengan sangat lancar”.
John runs fast.
Fast (adverb) menjelaskan run (verb), membentuk frasa “berlari (dengan) cepat”.
Fortunately, he is rich.
Forunately (adverb) menjelaskan kalimat he is rich (sentence).

Pada kalimat di atas dapat dilihat bahwa adverb dapat menjelaskan berbagai parts of speech yang berbeda.


Jenis dan Contoh Adverb

Berikut jenis dan contoh adverb dalam bahasa Inggris.

  1. Adverb of Place and Direction

    Adverb of place and direction adalah adverb yang menyatakan tempat dan arah (di mana suatu hal dilakukan atau berada).

    Bentuk: word: here, there, outside, inside, home, west, …
    prepositional phrase: in that school, beside the mosque, on the desk, …
    Contoh: A very smart girl is sitting there.
    John and Ratna are discussing many problems in the office.
    I have been here.
  2. Adverb of Manner

    Adverb of manner adalah adverb yang menunjukkan cara (bagaimana suatu hal dilakukan).

    Bentuk: word: fast, slow, hard, express, quick, …
    adjective + ly:   fluently (fluent + ly), slowly (slow + ly), …
    prepositional phrase: by train/ bus/ car, by heart, on foot, …
    Contoh: We must study hard.
    She sings a song beautifully.
    I came here on foot.
  3. Adverb of Degree

    Adverb of degree adalah adverb yang menunjukkan makna tingkatan atau intensitas (seberapa kuat, lemah, sering, besar, dsb sesuatu itu).

    Anggota: so (begitu/ sangat)
    very
    (sangat)
    highly (sangat)
    exceedingly (sangat)
    extremely
    (sangat)
    adequately (sangat)
    pretty (sangat)
    somewhat (agak)
    fairly
    (agak)
    rather
    (agak)
    just (agak)
    enough (cukup)
    too (terlalu)
    more (lebih)
    Fungsi: menjelaskan adjective
      The tool is highly useful.
    It is fresh enough
    It sounds very awkward.
      menjelaskan adverb
      The man walked very fast.
    She strode confidently enough into the room.
    He lives so simply.
  4. Adverb of Time

    Adverb of Time adalah adverb yang menunjukkan waktu (kapan suatu kejadian terjadi).

    Anggota: definite time (waktu pasti)
      singular word: yesterday, today, tomorrow, …
    plural word: Saturdays, nights, …
    phrase: Saturday night, last week, next month, a month ago, …
      indefinite time (waktu tak pasti)
      recently, lately, nowadays, already, immediately, soon, later, …
      chronological order (urutan kejadian)
      now, then, before, later, after(wards), next first, ….
    Contoh: I am studying english grammar now.
    She will go there tomorrow.
    Professor Tomski has already
     come.
  5. Adverb of Frequency

    Adverb of frequency adalah adverb yang menyatakan frekuensi (seberapa sering suatu kegiatan dilakukan atau sesuatu terjadi)

    Anggota: always, usually, normally, often, sometimes, occasionally, seldom, rarely, never, …
    Contoh: He usually comes late.
    Tom seldom plays with us.
    I ever called him.
  6. Exclamatory Adverb

    Exclamatory adverb adalah adverb yang digunakan dalam berseru. Pola:

    How + adjective/ adverb + S V!

    Contoh:

    You are funny = How funny you are!
    He becomes angry = How angry he becomes!
    She danced beautifully = How beautifully she danced!
    The man behaves badly = How badly the man behaves!
  7. Explanatory Adverb

    Explanatory adverb adalah adverb yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan hal sejenis atau untuk merincikan sesuatu.

    Anggota: contohnya: e.g. (exempli gratia), for example, for instance
    seperti: such as, like, as
    yakni, yaitu: i.e. (id est), viz. (videlicet), namely
    Contoh: There are many interesting places to visit in the city, e.g., the botanical garden and the art museum.
    I prefer to wear casual clothes, such as jeans and a sweatshirt.
    Mark knows a few people here, viz., Mr. Martin, Mrs. Mary, and Robert.
  8. Interrogative Adverb

    Interrogative adverb adalah adverb yang digunakan untuk membuat pertanyaan.

    Anggota: Why = menanyakan alasan
    Where = menanyakan tempat
    When = menanyakan waktu
    How = menanyakan cara, jarak, durasi, …
    Contoh: Where did you buy this comic?
    When will you come here?
    Why has she chosen the way?
    How is she singing the classical song?
    How long will you travel?
  9. Sentence Adverb

    Sentence adverb adalah adverb yang berfungsi untuk menjelaskan keseluruhan kalimat.

    Anggota: Fortunately, no one was hurt.
    Obviously, they will not finish it on time.
    The boy is surely the most diligent in that class.
    Contoh: Where did you buy this comic?
    When will you come here?
    Why has she chosen the way?
    How is she singing the classical song?
    How long will you travel?

Posisi Adverb

Posisi adverb dalam kalimat mengikuti ketentuan:

  1. Place and Direction + Frequency + Time

    I have been to London several times this year.
  2. Manner + Place + Time

    Arifah studies seriously at school everyday.
  3. Auxiliary 1 + Adverb + (Auxiliary 2, Auxiliary 3) + Ordinary

    I have almost finished working.

Fungsi Adverb

Selain dari yang disebutkan pada jenis adverb di atas, fungsi adverb dalam bahasa Inggris yang lainnya adalah sebagai:

  1. Emphasis (penekanan)

    Only you come here.
  2. Negation (negasi atau penyangkalan)

    She does not look at us.
  3. Conjunctive adverb (penyambungan)

    Stop making that noise; otherwise, I’ll call the police. 

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